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PLANNING A LESSON USING SHORT STORY



By
Aan Subekti P

ABSTRACT
The objectives of the study is to describe the planning a lesson using short story. A lesson plan is very important for a teacher. A teacher will fell easy if they have a good lesson plan when teach in the class room. The writer will explain a plan using short story media. The plan makes to order student not bored in the process of study, because a students usually like telling story or hearing story. In the other case that plan using a short story is more easy because in a form of story better than other form. The student fell enjoyable to follow a plot of story, inside of it a teacher most easy to influence in the aim of plan. It is worth bearing in mind that many of these task and activities are design to help students overcome the difficulties highlighted in figure.
After the data are collection, there are analyzed by using the objective approach of Gillian Lazar (1993:77-82). The writer will built up a story based on some paragraph They say I’m Fat, by :Yuku Sugianto. A sample plan lesson will a part of some activity. There are teen activities, activity 1. Words order, 2. Describe character, 3. Reason and advice, 4. Summarizing the main point. Activity 5, 6,7,8,9, and 10, contain about grammar, tense and the students will describe contain of the story and unconsciously they has studied more with enjoyable story. After describe all the activities the student have a result of answering the question; What is the aim of using each activity and  What would be a good order for using the activities in a lesson.
The conclusion a planning lesson using short story, they Say I’m Fat are follow: First, for the students; the students can describes between fat and thin and can feel it if have fat and thin body. The students can express their own opinion. Using short story lesson plan is most easy conveyed the students. Second, for the teacher; with each activity a teacher can implicitly the aim lesson, writing, structure and grammar. Unrealized the student would be do by them self and their groups.
CHAPTER I
LESSON PLAN AND SHORT STORY


A.     Lesson Plan
A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. Lesson plan is a plan or frame work of, how a topic is to be taught to the students in a class room. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will very depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered and the need or curiosity of children. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
A lesson plan will be compared with a short story and the writer will explain the rule of the plan by an activity. A short story is very interesting to read, so the student expectation enjoyable read it. Because of it the writer using a short story to make a plan of lesson and hope the students not feel excessive.

B.     Short story
Short stories are an excellent source of literary masterpieces, in easy to consume lengths for your students. Short stories are an effective way of capturing your students' attention, and can also provide great literary examples of terminology English and Reading students must master.
A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. This format tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the 20th and 21st century sense) and novels or books. Short story definitions based upon length differ somewhat even among professional writers, due somewhat in part to the fragmentation of the medium into genres. Since the short story format includes a wide range of genres and styles, the actual length is determined by the individual author's preference (or the story's actual needs in terms of creative trajectory or story arc) and the submission guidelines relevant to the story's actual market. Guidelines vary greatly among publishers.
Many short story writers define their work through a combination of creative, personal expression and artistic integrity. As a result, many attempt to resist categorization by genre as well as definition by numbers, finding such approaches limiting and counter-intuitive to artistic form and reasoning. As a result, definitions of the short story based upon length splinter even more when the writing process is taken into consideration.

C.      The characteristic of short story
Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually a short story focuses on one incident, has a single plot, a single setting, a small number of characters, and covers a short period of time. It can be boiled down to "Man goes up tree. Man gets rocks thrown at him. Man goes down tree."
In longer forms of fiction, stories tend to contain certain core elements of dramatic structure: exposition (the introduction of setting, situation and main characters); complication (the event that introduces the conflict); rising action, crisis (the decisive moment for the protagonist and his commitment to a course of action); climax (the point of highest interest in terms of the conflict and the point with the most action); resolution (the point when the conflict is resolved); and moral.
Because of their length, short stories may or may not follow this pattern. Some do not follow patterns at all. For example, modern short stories only occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though, is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action (in medias res). As with longer stories, plots of short stories also have a climax, crisis, or turning point. However, the endings of many short stories are abrupt and open and may or may not have a moral or practical lesson. As with any art form, the exact characteristics of a short story will vary by creator.
When short stories intend to convey a specific ethical or moral perspective, they fall into a more specific sub-category called Parables (or Fables). This specific kind of short story has been used by spiritual and religious leaders worldwide to inspire, enlighten, and educate their followers.
CHAPTER II
PLANING A LESSON USING SHORT STORY


A.   Planning a lesson using short story
There are many planning a lesson using short story which a part of some activities. Each part will be describe with an activities and after describe all the activities the students have a result to answering the question of the story.
1.     They Say I’m Fat
This is the short story which will be presented.
They say I’m fat

I don't know what my fault is. I feel that these days I have been keeping my diet pretty tight. But how come this my dear cheek is still stretchy. And a lot of people who take a look at it want to pinch it. It makes me more resentful. It is resentful... resentful... resentful... Veeeery resentful. What is my fault? Weep... Weep... did the fault come from the descendant from my beloved father and mother that makes my cheek really puffed-up. I don't think so. They are not fat either.
But if I really think about it again my fate was really unfortunate.
I remembered truely when I was still small. Approximately when I was five years old; my relatives came to my house. And all of them then were so happy to see my face. Not anything and and not anywhy. They seemed like they got a new toy.
What toy? What else if not my cheek that passionated them. They pinched the left cheek, then pinched the right cheek. They were so very happy then. Laugh laugh. They did not know that the owner of this cheek felt a suffering on both the body and heart. Pain on the cheek, pain also in the heart. Until the end I cried… Huaaaaa. Only then they stopped,changed to caressing. "Choop choop the sweet child should not cry please."
It was more serious when I was in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, I remember truely that I had a friend named Rudi. A child that according to my view is one of the naughtiest on the school. It is indeed generally the child was good, not smoking, obeyed the school rule and even the national ideology and national law, never skipped class even once, moderately clever and high-achieving also. Well then why how come I said that he is naughty? Yes, because of that. He liked to pinch my cheek very much. If I daydream a little I was pinched. When I was careless a little I was pinched. His pinches were consecutive and consistent. Every day. Three times a day. After eating and before sleeping (how come it looks like taking medicine?). Yeah no matter what it was really often.
I thought when I went to university, the sympathetic experiences will end. Moreover I entered to a university that was famous enough. Ehem… ehem… I was convinced, the students were definitely very clever, well, and very devout. Ugh ugh but the reality was not as beautiful as the dream. Friends here still liked to tease that I was fat. Still were also very rascal. Fortunately there was no one that liked to pinch this cheek. Hahaha. They understand that in this matter I have given them a ban for everyone. Including close friends. They might admire me but it is not allowed to touch me. Not even pinch. Banned hard. Verboden. And suddenly….
Bam!
"Ouch..."
"Morning, Gina," Yanti greets me with his bright smile. Without any feeling of guilty or sinful. Ouch.. ouch... a-ouch.."Why,did I hit you very hard?""No question asked. Very painful you know!", "Sorry, sorry. It is your fault anyway. Even on a morning you were daydreaming. Who were you thinking about? The Uhuy guy?""Oh no!!!!, very thanks to you. No meaning of Uhuy in my dictionary..""How come you are putting on airs."
In fact the Uhuy meant actually is Gunawan, a person that is also in the same course with them. In fact the boy is a normal boy. Very truly normal. All are normal. Normal hair, normal eyes, normal face, normal smile, the cleverness is also normal. Only one is extraordinary.... His lameness is extraordinary. Sometimes I am resentful because of him. But on one hand he can accept me the way I am. So this heart become not resentful again. I am crushed, cool and calm because of him.
In recent times the Gunawan guy is actually very close to me. I don't know why could be like that. So not-nice news are beginning to circulate in between students. Rumours and unclear gossips which I don't know where are their origin at first. Seriously. In fact it is true that I and the Gunawan guy are only normal friends. Nothing happened, or whatever it is. I swear...
The problem is that gossip power even much stronger. Therefore, that guy even get title: uhuy. For your information, uhuy is stated for a third singular person representative on a guy which is in "approaching" process. So, the uhuy statement show that he is in process of approaching me. Is it true? Who knows?
I think it’s not necessarily true. Look at his behavior. He talk and behave in the same way with all his friends (girl). Sometimes, a bit naughty. Ah, damn guy. Fortunately, he doesn’t like to pinch my cheek, otherwise our good relationship which is maintained so far will be destroyed.
However, I just don't ignore. He also does the same thing to me. Sometimes, reaallyyyy care, sometimes he is ignorant. I’m confused. My friends said that he likes me. In teenagers telenovela, it is said as fall in love.
If it is true, it’s ok for me. Coz actually I also quite put a symphaty to him. He is cheerful, kind, caring. Even though he is lame. Sooo lame. But it’s ok. The most important thing, he doesn’t say I am fat, and he doesn’t pinch my cheek.
One day, Gunawan ask me to have lunch together. I am ok to his offer. Why not? I can also borrow his lecture note for yesterday lesson. I was sleeping in lecture theatre yesterday. So many think and stuff… Like a businessman you know. Hohohoho...
We sit, be quiet, and calm. Before we order the food, Gun starts to speak:
"Gin,I know your cheek is stretchy.""Grrr, so what?"I am angry. I think he really can understand me. But he also said I am fat. Nooo, why must there be one more person who reveal that “fact" to me? "Many people said that stretchy cheek is not so good." "Yeah, I am ugly," I said frownly. Sensitive. "But…" Gun says again."But what?’ I say angrily. Resentful… resentful."Ups, are you angry? Gun asked melancholicly. Seeing his face, I melt. "nooo… no problem? What’s wrong, Gun?" I ask relaxly."but… I… I want to say something to you Gin. Important," Gun said bowing down his face. Either he is shy or scary?
Deg! My heart beats very fast. And become faster and faster. Aaargh impossible. Impossible. My blood flows quicker. What’s wrong with me? Why can Gun make me like that?He continues his statement… still with tremble…"I…. I…""What?""Gin, could I...?"
My thought flies away. I almost forget that I go here to have lunch. Is it true that his friends gossip about Gun is true? Gun so far… without any words… Arrgh… my face turn red, but I don’t want Gun knows. That the truth… Don’t I bow down my face. I feel that he will say that word. Ya confirmed that he will say that word...
"Gin, could I borrow your money? I don’t have anything left."

2.     An activities of the plan
The writer will describes in each activities
Activity 1
Divided into two groups A and B. Discuss what the words on your list mean in the context of the story. The students can use dictionaries to help. After finished, explain the meaning of the words to the students in the other group.
Word list 1                                         Word list 2
Pinch ( line 3)                                                moderately ( line 18)
Descendant ( line 4)                         admire ( line 30 )
puffed-up ( line 5)                             extraordinary ( line 43)
Approximately ( line 7)                    lame ( line 62 )
Passionate (line 10)                          frownly ( line 73 )

Activity 2
Describes ones character who experiencing a crisis or conflict.
a)     Thinks a situation before fat and after fat.
b)     Imagine that you are the one of the fat or you are the slim. What will you choose both of it”. What are you doing if you got fat?  What are you doing if you got thin?
c)      Write two or three paragraphs based on your though. Try to make your description as a fat and thin person.

Activity 3
Think about following situations, and discuss them with the partner. Give the reasons for the advice you would give each person in that situation.
a)     Gina is fat since childhood until now.  What should she do?
b)     Gina always pinched his cheek by her friends. What should she do?
c)      When she will feel happy caused by her chance to a boyfriend but in fact the boy just want lend s money. What should they do?

Activity 4
a)     Now read the text again. This time to make summarizing the main point of each paragraph in the story. For example :
Paragraph 1 : Gina’s childhood memories when her cheek pinched by her family
Paragraph 2 : …………………………………………………………………..
Then discuss this question in a pairs or groups :
a)     Is there any logical sequence in the story thoughts, in Gina’s character?
b)     What kind of connection can you find between the different paragraphs? what effect does this have?

Activity 5
Read the story and answer these questions :
a)     Why she felt fate?
b)     Who is the uhuy guy?
c)      What do you think is her fatness?

Activity 6
a)     In the story, she felt self confidence crisis caused of her fatness. In groups, note down the reason her doing diet and the reason she not diet.
b)     What decision does she finally make?
c)      In her position, would you have made the same diet? Why or why not?


Activity 7
Look at the last few paragraphs in the story. In a pairs or a groups discuss the questions below :
a)     How many tense are there in the story?
Give the sample sentences of each tense.
b)     Look at the line 35 :'Morning Gina,’Yanti greets me with his bright smile.
Rewrite this sentence as if it was :
1)     Indirect speech
2)     Reported speech
c)      Look at the sentence in line 2 :’ I feel that these days I have been keeping my diet pretty tight”
Rewrite this sentence as if  Future perfect tense.
Why using “have been?
d)     So, the uhuy statement show that he is in process of approaching me. Is it true? Who knows?”in line 57.
Change this sentence using question tag, it’s can or not?

Activity 8
Divide into two groups. Group A read extract A and group B read extract B. then answer the questions:
Group A
What are Gina’s mentality  psychology in the theme?
How far do you see these reflected in Gina?
Group B
What is the ‘stream of consciousness’ technique in the story?
How far do you think it?
Group A and B
a)     When you have finished discussing your extract tell the another group what you have discovered in your reading.
b)     Can you think of any writers in your own language who may have used similar techniques, especially in Indonesian author?
Activity 9
a)     Think about, if there are events fat in your own family. What was daily life like for you as a brother or sister got fat?
b)     Using if clause to makes a sentence
c)      Your teacher is going to tell you fat is more good than thin. If necessary, take a few notes about what the teacher says?

Activity 10
Here are some statements whish describe the main characters in the story. Read the statements and check the meanings of any words you don’t know in your dictionary. Then decide whether you agree or disagree give some examples from the text to support your opinion.
a)     Gina is an attractive, friendly and being dispassionate.
b)     Gina is a timid, very little sense of emotion adventure.
c)      Gina’s friend is always scorns her fatness since her childhood until she school in the university.
d)     When Gina in the university, she ever lied by gunawan. She want Gunawan to express his love to her but never did it. In act Gunawan only need lend Ginas’s money.
  
B.     The extract of each activities
Extract A
A volume of short story by Yuku Sugianto. In some comments in him web wrote  “My intention was to write the moral value in mentality teenager emotion. Under some aspects : childhood, adolescence and public life. The stories are arranged in this order and tried united at present to the youngest. Some of the statements are sharp humor at the last story
Extract B
Stream of consciousness a technique used by the author to represent a character’s thought and sense impressions without syntax sequence. For some type have been identified : narration of mental processes.
CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION


A.   Assessment of the lesson plan for They say I’m Fat
After you have considered the aim of each activity in the lesson plan and a logical order for them, think about these more detailed questions:
a)     One of the main difficulties learners complain about when using a story understanding   the vocabulary. In the lesson plan for They Say I’m Fat students were asked to look up meaning of certain words in the story (Activity 1). If you were designing an exercise of this type, which of the following criteria would you bear in mind, and why?
-          The words included should be crucial for the students’  understanding of the gist of the story.
-          The words included would be those you are certain the students to guess for the context.
-          The words included would be those you are certain the students didn’t know.
-          The words included would be useful for students in writing exam essay.
-          The word included would be those you think students should be able to use actively.
What other factor would you need to think about when designing materials to help students with vocabulary in a short story?
b)     In at least two activities in the lesson plan, the students were asked to respond personally to the themes to the story, or think about own feeling and experiences. Whish one? Why do you think this is important?
c)      Activities 4, 5 and 6 are all designed to practice some kind of reading skill with students.
-          Which skills are being practiced?
-          In what order?
-          Do you think it is necessary to provide students with all there activities when doing the story with them?
d)     Which activity do you think would be suitable for a class with strong literary interest? What could be the result of using it with a class who do not have a strong interest in literature?
e)     Are they any activities in the lesson plan that would not use? Why? Can you suggest any activities that you might wish to add to the plan?
B.   Conclusion
There are some conclusions after the writer using lesson plan of short story They Say I’m Fat. First, for the students; the students can describes between fat and thin and can feel it if have fat and thin body (activity 1, 2 and 3). The students can express their own opinion. Using short story lesson plan is most easy conveyed the students. Second, for the teacher; with each activity a teacher can implicitly the aim lesson, reading, writing, structure and grammar (activity 4,5,6,7, 9, and 10). Unrealized the student would be do by them self and their groups.

Bibliography

Lazar Gillian,1993, Literature language Teaching, New York Cambridge
                        University Press
­­­­­­­____________,http://www.kejut.com/fatgirl



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